How Emeralds Are Formed

How Emerald Gemstones Are Formed?

Emeralds are gem quality specimens of the beryl mineral having rich green color. For over 5000 years, Emerald gemstone has been prized as the most desirable and colored gemstones. The green color and shine of the emerald stone make it a more valuable gemstone.

Emerald is a variety of beryl, the mineral has a chemical composition of Beryllium, Aluminum, Silicon and oxygen {Be3Al2(SiO3)6}. The green color of Emerald is due to traces of Chromium present in it.

Formation of Emerald Gemstones

Emerald crystals with other gemstones, crystals grow one molecule at a time. Each molecule positions in the crystal matrix under the optimum conditions. Gem quality crystals need the proper time and space to grow.

A natural emerald gemstone that is being mined are relics of geologic events that took place deep in the earth’s crust about hundreds of millions of years ago.

The emerald formation is “hydrothermal” means it needs water and heat to form.

Emerald stone
Emerald stone

Emerald crystals form in hydrothermal veins under the condition of presence of the necessary elements like beryllium.

These hydrothermal veins occur whenever the hydrothermal fluids escape from magma deep in the Earth’s crust. Magma is a rock found below the Earth’s surface.

These hydrothermal fluids contain the adequate concentration of the elements which are necessary to build a natural emerald. When these conditions are up to the mark, emerald crystal takes shape.

Hydrothermal fluids start to get cool in deposits veins. The Emeralds which are sourced from Columbia are formed in this way.

Many of these Columbian emeralds are associated with calcite deposits that are formed in the above hydrothermal process.

All emeralds do not form in veins. Some emeralds are formed in pegmatite deposits. The process of pigment is similar to hydrothermal veins.

But in hydrothermal vein formation, primary agent is hot water and primary agent in pegmatite is molten or molten rock.

Emerald gems
Emerald gems

As this magma starts to cool, some elements are left in solution in the remaining fluid. If the conditions fulfill, Emerald crystal formation may occur in these pegmatites.

Mother Nature must satisfy many requirements in order for a gem quality to grow a well emerald crystal.

The first emerald mines were in Egypt. The largest uncut Emerald was found in Brazil in 1974. It was an incredible 86,136- carat natural beryl crystal.


The stone was highly valued at $1,120,080 USD. The largest emerald crystal ever discovered was 7,025 carats and was found in a mine in Colombia.